The energy sector covers the supply of electricity, gas, heat, and hot water to industry, commerce, and residential areas. This branch also includes the operation of electricity and gas generating plants. The environmental sector covers the further processing of waste and the purification of wastewater in order to protect the environment from the ingress of hazardous substances.
Waste treatment and recycling cover the collection of domestic, industrial and commercial waste, both hazardous and non-hazardous, in garbage cans, portable bins and containers. The products handled include household waste, spent batteries, cooking oil and fat, waste oil from ships and repair shops, and rubble and demolition material.
This sector is responsible both for conducting geoscientific investigations of geothermal energy and for putting this energy to use through the appropriate technology. The energy obtained in this way can be used directly, used to generate electricity or for cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP).
Solar thermal is a form of renewable energy, and entails the conversion of solar energy into usable thermal energy.
Power plants generate electricity. There are different types of plant depending on the raw material used. They make use of the power of water, wind or the sun to generate energy on the one hand, and the energy generated by combustion processes (e.g. waste incineration) on the other hand.
Sources of biomass are numerous and include energy crops such as switch grass, agricultural waste, manure, forest products, waste, and domestic garbage. Biomass power plants burn these materials to generate electricity. Biomass raw materials produced sustainably unlike fossil fuels, which are non-renewable. Biomass can also use to produce biogas.
Biogas is a combustible gas produced by the fermentation of biomass. Biogas production takes place in biogas plants, where both waste and renewable raw materials are stored and fermented for longer periods at a defined temperature level, with biogas as the end product.
Methane and carbon dioxide produce landfill and sewer gas as the waste and water pollutants decompose. The resulting products include nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, ammonia, and siloxanes.
Waste water and sewage treatment plants collect, treat and dispose of organic and inorganic materials from wastewater. As the biomass ferments in the digester, biogas produced and put to further usage.
In hotels, small CHPs used to generate effectively energy and heat. It takes a lot of heat and energy to heat the whole building, and every guest expects to enjoy hot water when taking a shower. In addition, all the various electronic devices in the building require lots of electricity, not to mention by the large kitchens commonly found in hotels.
Coal mining involves the extraction of solid mineral resources in underground and open-pit mines, and activities such as sorting, washing, briquetting, etc. that result in marketable products.
The oil and gas industry involves the extraction of oil and natural gas as well as the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons. It also includes activities such as the completion and fitting of crude oil wells, and all other activities involved in the treatment of crude oil and natural gas up to the place of removal from the production site.